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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2019
Volume 3 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-40

Online since Thursday, June 27, 2019

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A review on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease p. 1
MG Visha
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) commonly occurs in the older age. It is a progressive lung disease which is due to a group of disorders such as refractory asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. Most people with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and they experience difficulty in breathing. The disease is mainly characterized by increased breathlessness. Acute exacerbations of COPD are mainly caused by bacteria such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The severity of the exacerbation is based on three cardinal symptoms. The three cardinal symptoms are increased sputum volume, increased sputum purulence, and increased dyspnea compared with baseline. Patients experiencing two symptoms are considered to have moderate and all three symptoms are considered to have severe disease status. Antibacterial therapy is the definite treatment for the COPD.
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Review on cytochrome C p. 7
Anubhav Das
Cytochrome c (Cyt c) is an essential mitochondrial protein which takes part in the electron transport system and apoptosis. Cyt c also scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidizes cardiolipin during apoptosis. The recent finding that cyt c is phosphorylated in vivo for the important role of cyt c in the regulation of making life and death decisions. An apoptotic sequence of events takes place which involves changes in cyt c phosphorylation, increased ROS through increased mitochondrial membrane potentials, the oxidation of cardiolipin by cyt c, and its release from the mitochondria. Cyt c regulation in respiration and cellular death is discussed about human disease which includes neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and sepsis.
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Apoptotic cell death in heart failure associated with diabetes p. 12
N Ashika Riswana, P Bhuvaneshwari
Diabetes is a serious public health problem. Improvements in the treatment of noncardiac complications from diabetes have resulted in heart disease becoming a leading cause of death in diabetic patients. Several cardiovascular pathological consequences of diabetes such as hypertension affect the heart to varying degrees. Furthermore, hyperglycemia as a sole risk factor may directly cause cardiovascular damage and lead to a complication such as diabetic cardiomyopathy. Alterations in myocardial structure and function occur during the late stage of diabetes. These chronic alterations are believed to result from acute cardiac responses to suddenly increased glucose levels at the early stage of diabetes. In failing hearts, cardiomyocytes degenerate and interstitial fibrosis, which indicates cardiomyocyte loss, becomes more prominent in the myocardium. Various mechanisms may establish an association of diabetes mellitus and heart failure as follows: first, comorbidities such as hypertension may play a role, diabetes also accelerates the development of coronary atherosclerosis, and experimental, clinical studies support the existence of microangiopathy, metabolic factors, or myocardial fibrosis influencing diabetic cardiomyopathy. Apoptosis of adult cardiac muscle cells can have lasting adverse consequences on overall cardiac performance. It is possible that autophagic degeneration may also be one of the mechanisms of myocardial cell death.
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Use of VideoScribe application in teaching: A comparative study p. 19
M Ashwin Shravan Kumar
Aim: The aim of the study is to know the effect of VideoScribe application in teaching and learning of pathology. Objective: The main objective is to compare the conventional textbook learning with VideoScribe flipped classes. Materials and Methods: A video is made using the VideoScribe application. Thirty students were asked to prepare on the same topic and were asked to take up the test. The video was then played, and the students were asked to take up test again. The answers were evaluated and compared. Results and Discussion: The results clearly show that there is increased percentage of marks when the flipped class is made available. This shows that flipped class are helpful in the improvement of knowledge in comparison with conventional textbook methods. This study is designed in a way to evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual aids in learning process. Conclusion: Audiovisual aids are important in the education system. These encourage the teaching-learning process and make it easier to understand the concepts. Hence, there is no doubt that these applications and software have greater impact.
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Effect of blind artist game in pathology: A comparative study p. 22
D Angel Fastina Mary
Introduction: Pathology is that the science of the causes and effects of diseases, particularly the branch of drugs that deals with the laboratory examination of samples of the body tissue for diagnostic or rhetorical functions. Research suggests that students have knowledge regarding pathology in their identification of drawings and alternative artifacts. Materials and Methods: This study consists of 100 controls – 50 population exposed to blind artist game and 50 population without exposed to blind artist game in pathology. The data will be collected, and the resultswill be analyzed statistically. Results: This study shows that there is a high significant difference between groups with blind artist game and without blind artist game with P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study showed that the Blind Artist Game is an effective game in learning pathology.
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Effect of bingo puzzle game in understanding pathology p. 26
R Haripriya
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of bingo puzzle game in understanding pathology. Introduction: Students are introduced to newer terms and concepts in pathology, and it has been observed that students often find it difficult to remember and recall various concepts and mechanisms. Hence, reinforcement of key concepts is indispensable to increase understanding. Bingo puzzle game stimulates the mind, increase the vocabulary, and help to develop a healthy skepticism. Materials and Methods: The study sample size was 150 students. (1) Group 1: 75 students not exposed to a bingo puzzle game. (2) Group 2: 75 students exposed to a bingo puzzle game. Both the groups were asked to take up a written test, and the results were statistically analyzed with unpaired t-test, compared, and represented graphically. Results: The unpaired t-test shows the value of P < 0.05, and this study shows that there is a significant increase in the marks obtained by the students who learned by playing bingo puzzle game. Thus, this type of active learning methods helps students to understand pathology in an effective way. Conclusion: In conclusion, the game based activity is very helpful in understanding the pathology concepts. Especially, to list out the various causes and examples for a single pathology, Bingo Puzzle game is useful and an innovative methodology in teaching Pathology.
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C1q nephropathy in a young female sensitive to low-dose steroid: Clinicopathological correlation and outcome a rare clinical scenario p. 32
Rajesh Kumar, Amit Kumar Singh, Yasir S Rizvi, Rajan Duggal
C1q nephropathy is a very uncommon form of glomerular disease and the presentation usually coincide with nephrotic syndrome. The histological patterns of C1q nephropathy broadly divided into minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and immune-mediated proliferative glomerulosclerosis. Here, we are presenting an interesting case of C1q nephropathy in young female who achieved complete remission on low-dose corticosteroid therapy. Corticosteroids, according to the body weight, are the mainstay of treatment. Some patients who do not tolerate, a low dose of steroid may be used. It is found to be resistant in most of the cases and other immunosuppressant is reserved for such cases.
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Coccidioidomycosis masquerading as disseminated tuberculosis p. 36
Kriti Chauhan, Harpreet Walia, Gazal Sara, Varun Hatwal
Coccidioidomycosis is a rare disease in India. However, in recent years, quite a significant number of cases have been reported. The increase is likely due to frequent visits to endemic regions outside India. It is because of the rarity of this disease that several times, it is misdiagnosed and left untreated. We present one such case which was mistaken for tuberculosis and put on anti-tuberculous therapy only to return with more widespread disease and no symptomatic relief.
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Primary nasopharyngeal non-Hodgkin lymphoma p. 39
Reddy Ravikanth, Kanagasabai Kamalasekar
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