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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-6

A review on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
M G Visha
Department of Pathology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_2_19

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) commonly occurs in the older age. It is a progressive lung disease which is due to a group of disorders such as refractory asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. Most people with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and they experience difficulty in breathing. The disease is mainly characterized by increased breathlessness. Acute exacerbations of COPD are mainly caused by bacteria such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The severity of the exacerbation is based on three cardinal symptoms. The three cardinal symptoms are increased sputum volume, increased sputum purulence, and increased dyspnea compared with baseline. Patients experiencing two symptoms are considered to have moderate and all three symptoms are considered to have severe disease status. Antibacterial therapy is the definite treatment for the COPD.

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