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CASE REPORTS
Preanalytical variables: Influence on laboratory results and patient care
Rateesh Sareen, Menka Kapil, GN Gupta
January-June 2017, 1(1):31-34
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_2_17  
Pre analytical errors have a major impact on diagnostic accuracy of laboratory results. There have been tremendous work and established quality control criteria for analytical phase of testing but there is paucity of standards for pre analytical phase. Recommendations for sample collection, storage, processing and transport have been developed by national and international consensus. There is a dire need for all laboratories to formulate their own quality manual so that day to day pre analytical errors are curtailed. As the errors in pre analytical phase are not inevitable and should be avoided with diligent application of quality control, education dedicated to patient care. We illustrate the ability of laboratory data by case studies to reinforce the importance of vigilance in pre analytical phase of testing.
  9,006 851 -
Bilateral oral leukoplakia: A case report and review on its potential for malignant transformation
K Tupakula Pavan, Ankita Kar, S Reddy Sujatha, BK Devi Yashodha, Nagaraju Rakesh, V Shwetha
July-December 2018, 2(2):27-30
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_9_18  
Oral leukoplakia (OL) is considered as a most common potentially malignant disorder (PMD) affecting the mucosa of the oral cavity. With the passage of time, the definitions of OL kept evolving. Leukoplakia usually presents after the fourth decade of life and is one of the most common oral PMDs affecting the oral cavity. Based on the macroscopic features of OL, it can be classified into two subtypes: homogeneous and nonhomogeneous.
  6,677 748 -
Gorlin cyst of the maxilla: A rare case report
Abhishek Singh Nayyar, M.V.R. Ratnam, G Upendra, B Kalivara Prasad, S.V.N. Sashikiran, Debasis Sahu
January-June 2017, 1(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_1_17  
A cyst is defined as a pathological cavity which may or may not have an epithelial lining and which has a fluid, semi-fluid, or gaseous content and is not formed by the accumulation of pus. Calcifying odontogenic cyst, as Gorlin cyst was recognized earlier, was first reported by Gorlin et al. in 1962. At that time, it was classified as a cyst related to an odontogenic apparatus. It was later renamed as calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) in the World Health Organization classification devised in 2005 due to its histological complexity, morphological diversity, and aggressive proliferation. CCOT was later recognized by numerous names including Gorlin cyst, calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst, and dentogenic ghost cell tumor. The present case report presents a case of the same in a 21-year-old female which was diagnosed as Gorlin cyst during the diagnostic workup.
  3,759 357 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Salivary glucose levels in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A tool for monitoring glycemic control
B Kartheeki, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, A Ravikiran, Y Samatha, KV Chalapathi, M Prasanthi, K Srikanth
January-June 2017, 1(1):7-14
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_3_16  
Background and Aim of the Study: Diabetes mellitus (DM) requires a frequent monitoring of sera glucose levels in the body. This requirement of multiple pricking at regular intervals for monitoring sera glucose levels in the body is physically and psychologically traumatic to the patient. This necessitates a noninvasive procedure like salivary glucose estimation. The aim of this study was to assess whether salivary glucose levels can be used as a means of regular monitoring of DM without the need for serial invasive procedure required for sera glucose level estimations. Subjects and Methods: The study group comprised 300 patients, divided into three sub-groups: Group 1 (healthy controls/nondiabetic patients; n = 50); Group 2 (controlled diabetic patients; n = 125); and Group 3 (uncontrolled diabetic patients; n = 125). After explaining the need for the study and obtaining consent, salivary sample collection was performed in the morning hours between 9.00 a.m. and 11.00 a.m. immediately after obtainment of the sera samples. Salivary and sera glucose levels were measured using glucose oxidase method. Statistical Analysis Performed: Statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. The difference between means and standard deviations (SDs) between the groups were assessed using ANOVA one-way test, whereas multiple comparisons between different groups were carried out using Tukey's honest significant difference test. The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant and a value <0.01 was considered highly statistically significant. Results: In this study, salivary glucose levels increased with sera glucose levels with the correlation coefficient between sera and unstimulated salivary glucose levels in the controls being 0.517, in controlled diabetics being 0.470 and in uncontrolled diabetics being 0.498 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that saliva can be used as a potential tool in the regular monitoring of DM.
  3,673 394 -
CASE REPORTS
Lactational adenoma: A diagnostic pitfall on fine needle aspiration cytology
Wu Bingcheng, Yeo Yen Ching, Tay Zhi En Amos, Yan Zhiyan, Mihir Gudi
July-December 2017, 1(2):47-49
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_16_17  
Pregnancy induces hormone-related breast changes which pose diagnostic challenges in the evaluation of a breast lump. In particular, fine needle aspiration cytology of a lactating adenoma may mimic malignancy. The authors present a case of a woman with a right breast lump. Fine needle aspiration cytology demonstrated the presence of numerous single-occurring epithelial cells with large round nuclei, discrete nucleoli, and ample vacuolated cytoplasm. Taken in isolation, this finding would be suspicious for malignancy. However, the clinical history of recent pregnancy was duly noted as was the presence of a granular vacuolated background on cytology. An accompanying core biopsy confirmed the lesion to be a lactating adenoma. This case highlights lactating adenoma as a potential diagnostic pitfall on fine needle aspiration cytology.
  3,721 315 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Relevance of surgical gloves in minor surgical procedures in the present scenario: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial
Pradipta Das, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, Omkar Haridas, K Lakshmi Sirisha, Abhishek Karan, K Pramod
January-June 2017, 1(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_8_17  
Context: In developing countries, where money set aside for public health is <1% of the gross domestic product, routine use of surgical gloves for examining patients as well as for minor surgical procedures can be a drain on the resources. The present study was, therefore, planned to ascertain whether it is necessary to use surgical gloves in routine minor surgical procedures. Aim: The aim of the study was to ascertain whether it is necessary to use surgical gloves in routine minor surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: A comparative, prospective, randomized, double-blind study was carried out in 100 patients for various minor surgical procedures, performed aseptically. Microbiology specimens were taken from the glove's surfaces according to a standard protocol. An independent assessor, who was blinded for the procedure, examined the patients on the 7th postoperative day. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS Statistics 20 core system software. Paired t-test, unpaired t–test, and Karl Pearson's coefficient test were used to calculate the scientific data and association between variables. Results: A total of 100 patients who underwent minor surgical procedures were obtained at the end of the study. Paired t-test showed highly significant difference from pre- to post-operative colony-forming units at 1% level of significance (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The present study concluded that the use of surgical gloves does not offer a definite advantage in minimizing the rate of infections following various minor surgical procedures.
  3,271 332 -
CASE REPORTS
Solitary neurofibroma of the floor of the mouth
Srikanth Hanasoge Srivathsa
January-June 2017, 1(1):20-22
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_2_16  
Solitary neurofibromas (SNFs) are rare benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Unlike neurofibromatosis, SNFs occurs as single entities. They are uncommon in the oral cavity, and it is even rarer in the floor of the mouth. When encountered in the oral cavity the differential diagnoses should consist of both benign and malignant tumors. A rare case of solitary benign neurofibroma occurring as an exophytic lesion in the floor of the mouth is being reported.
  3,185 249 -
Laboratory disease: Case of pseudothrombocytopenia
Rateesh Sareen, Menka Kapil, GN Gupta
January-June 2017, 1(1):23-25
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_5_17  
We report a case of EDTA induced pseudothrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP) in a patient who was treated with platelet transfusion and with refractory thrombocytopenia was referred to us. The Automated blood analyzer and peripheral blood smear examination revealed numerous platelet aggregates, leading to falsely low platelet count on automated hematology analyzer. The case emphasizes careful examination of peripheral blood smear to rule out this form of in vitro phenomenon which can save the patient from unnecessary transfusions and invasive diagnostic procedures.
  2,889 296 -
Osteolytic lesion of the mandible in a 42-year-old female
Jeffrey Allan Elo, Ho-Hyun Brian Sun, Chan M Park
July-December 2017, 1(2):54-60
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_15_17  
A case of metastatic breast cancer with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws is described in a 42-year-old Hispanic female who was previously unaware of a preexisting breast carcinoma. Radiographic examination demonstrated the absence of visible lamina dura and periodontal ligament on teeth in the affected area; while clinical examination demonstrated a moderately diffuse swelling of the right mandible and vestibule without distinct masses. Microscopy revealed disordered lesional cells with moderate variations in nuclear size, shape, and chromaticity, with a low mitotic index. Also noted were segments of necrotic remodeled resorbed lamellar bone showing enlarged empty osteocytic lacunae, a serrated external surface, adherent granular basophilic bacteria, and a fibrinous exudate with neutrophils.
  2,844 265 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Correlation between total serum bilirubin and clinico-laboratory parameters of babies admitted for neonatal jaundice in a resource-limited setting
Uchenna Ekwochi, Chidiebere D.I Osuorah, Ikenna Kingsley Ndu
July-December 2018, 2(2):21-26
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_6_18  
Background: Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is one of the most frequent reasons newborn babies in low- to middle-income countries visit the hospital during the neonatal period. If not promptly managed, it could lead to serious neurological sequela and mortality. The level and type of bilirubin in serum are an important determinant of the management option in NNJ. Unfortunately, this simple but fundamental investigation is not readily available in many hospitals in low- to middle-income countries, and where available, needs to be done serially, an expenditure most clients cannot afford. Methodology: This study enrolled 83 newborns admitted and managed for NNJ at the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital during an 18-month period. We report correlation between total serum bilirubin (TSB) and selected newborn clinical and laboratory parameters. Results: A total of 83 newborns were admitted for NNJ during the study. The mean TSB (mTSB) was 307 ± 145.2 μmol/L. Preterm infants (T = 0.462, P = 0.500), neonates with birth weight <2.5 kg (T = 0.219, P = 0.804), female neonate (T = 0.314, P = 0.578), and those that presented with skin level at the lower body region (T = 28.52, P = 0.001) had a higher mTSB at presentation to the special care baby unit. Similarly, mTSB at presentation was higher in neonates with PCV <40% (T = 0.005, P = 0.942), negative malaria parasite film (T = 0.01, P = 0.933), and those that were Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (T = 1.59, P = 0.221). Only skin level of jaundice at presentation was significantly correlated to the TSB (R = 0.818 P = 0.001) while gestational age (R = 0.096, P = 0.500), age at presentation (R = 0.197, P = 0.157), and birth weight (R = −0.107, P = 0.459) were not. Linear regression analysis showed that for every regional rise in skin level of jaundice (X), the TSB (Y) in μmol/L increases by a factor of 89.74 expressed in a regression equation as, Y = −10.66 + 89.74 X. Conclusions: The skin level of jaundice can be used as a rough guide in the estimation of total bilirubin in newborns with jaundice. This is especially useful in resource-limited setting where facilities for testing bilirubin level are lacking.
  2,524 246 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movements
N Yannawar Vijay, RM Dharma, MR Dinesh, Kalpesh Sharma, Sunny Gupta, Garima Chitakara, Abhishek Singh Nayyar
July-December 2017, 1(2):41-46
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_9_17  
Background: Bone remodeling is a biologic process involving an acute inflammatory response in periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement. The early response of periodontal tissues to mechanical stress involves metabolic changes that allow tooth movement. Aim of the Study: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) when forces are applied during initial alignment (P1) and retraction (P2). Settings and Design: The study was performed in a hospital-based population with an experimental design. Materials and Methods: Seventeen participants (11–21 years) included in the study, all requiring 1st premolar extractions were undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Maxillary canine and mandibular 2nd molar were used as test tooth (TT) and control tooth (CT) in each patient, respectively. On 14th day after start of each phase, 2 μL of GCF was collected from mesial side of both TT and CT for ALP and LDH activity determination using spectrophotometer. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS (version 13, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) package. The significance of differences in both phases at test or, at control site for LDH and ALP enzyme activity was evaluated by performing student's paired t-test. The significance of differences in between test and control sites in each phase separately was evaluated by performing student's unpaired t-test. Results: There was a variation in enzyme activity during orthodontic tooth movement. At TT, there was statistically significant increase in ALP and LDH activity in P2 as compared to P1 with P = 0.005 and P ≤ 0.001, respectively. At CT, there was no statistically significant difference in ALP and LDH activity in P1 and P2 with P = 0.054 and P = 0.061, respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded that ALP and LDH activity could be successfully estimated in the GCF and ALP and LDH activity in GCF reflects the biologic activity in the periodontium during orthodontic tooth movements.
  2,372 303 -
CASE REPORTS
Clopidogrel-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia after years of medication
Rateesh Sareen, Menka Kapil, Piyush Mathur, Madhulika Sharma
July-December 2018, 2(2):31-33
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_3_18  
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life threatening, fulminant disease characterized by fever, microangiopathy hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neurological signs and renal insufficiency. The real culprit is agglutinated platelets and fibrin which form micro thrombi, gets deposited in arterioles and capillaries without eliciting inflammatory response. The idiopathic cases of TTP are characterized by deficiency of ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease, with thrombospondin -1 like domains) metalloprotease activity. The use of antiplatelet drugs, the thienopyridine derivatives Clopidogrel & Ticlodipine, is associated with drug induced TTP. The literature studies indicate that most cases of thienopyridine associated TTP involve an antibody to ADAMTS-13 metalloprotease that cause thrombocytopenia and respond to therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). We report a case of 59 year old male who was on Clopidogrel post coronary angioplasty since past five years. He presented to us with complaints of nose bleeding and renal insufficiency. The evaluation of this potentially fatal drug complication should be borne in mind by physicians for all patients receiving Clopidogrel treatment.
  2,271 261 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, mouse double minute 2 homolog, Ki 67, and p53 expression in glioblastoma: A survival analysis including the prognostic value of clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters
Ishita Pant, Deepak Kumar Jha, Vinod Kumar Singh Gautam, Chandra Bhushan Tripathi, Sujata Chaturvedi
July-December 2017, 1(2):35-40
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_1_18  
Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical profile of glioblastoma in patients and to correlate these findings with patient survival. Materials and Methods: Thirty cases of histopathologically diagnosed glioblastomas were included in this study. These cases were analyzed in detail for certain clinical and histopathological parameters. Immunohistochemical staining for p53, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2), and Ki67 was done, and scores were calculated. Results of these findings were correlated with patient survival. Results: A retrospective analysis of the histopathology records and clinical case files was done in thirty cases of glioblastoma (World Health Organization Grade IV). The mean age of presentation was 50.6 years with a male predilection. The most common involved site was the frontal lobe. Among the clinical parameters, age of the patient and extent of surgical resection showed a significant correlation with the patient survival. Histopathological parameters showed no significant correlation with the patient survival, while among the immunohistochemical parameters, expression of MDM2 showed a significant correlation with the patient survival. Conclusion: In this study incorporating clinical, histopathological, and basic panel of immunohistochemistry, age of the patient, extent of the surgical resection, and expression of MDM2 showed a significant correlation with the patient survival.
  2,146 344 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Apoptotic cell death in heart failure associated with diabetes
N Ashika Riswana, P Bhuvaneshwari
January-June 2019, 3(1):12-18
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_1_19  
Diabetes is a serious public health problem. Improvements in the treatment of noncardiac complications from diabetes have resulted in heart disease becoming a leading cause of death in diabetic patients. Several cardiovascular pathological consequences of diabetes such as hypertension affect the heart to varying degrees. Furthermore, hyperglycemia as a sole risk factor may directly cause cardiovascular damage and lead to a complication such as diabetic cardiomyopathy. Alterations in myocardial structure and function occur during the late stage of diabetes. These chronic alterations are believed to result from acute cardiac responses to suddenly increased glucose levels at the early stage of diabetes. In failing hearts, cardiomyocytes degenerate and interstitial fibrosis, which indicates cardiomyocyte loss, becomes more prominent in the myocardium. Various mechanisms may establish an association of diabetes mellitus and heart failure as follows: first, comorbidities such as hypertension may play a role, diabetes also accelerates the development of coronary atherosclerosis, and experimental, clinical studies support the existence of microangiopathy, metabolic factors, or myocardial fibrosis influencing diabetic cardiomyopathy. Apoptosis of adult cardiac muscle cells can have lasting adverse consequences on overall cardiac performance. It is possible that autophagic degeneration may also be one of the mechanisms of myocardial cell death.
  2,244 215 1
A review on wound healing
MG Visha, Monika Karunagaran
July-December 2019, 3(2):50-59
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_13_19  
A wound is disruption of the anatomic structure and its useful continuity of residing tissue. Healing is the system of repair that follows damage to the skin and other soft tissues. Wound recovery is basically, a survival mechanism to restore shape and feature. The ability of a wound to heal depends partly on its intensity, as well as on the general fitness and dietary status of the man or woman. Clinically, wound may be categorized as acute or persistent primarily based at the timeliness of recuperation. The intense wound is a breakdown of the integrity of the gentle tissue envelope surrounding any part of the frame. Chronic wound is described, as ones wounds that fail to progress through orderly and timely sequence of restore or wounds that bypass through the restore system without restoring anatomic and useful effects. Although some additives of the recovery process have regenerative elements, pores and skin are the example of tissues in which the response to injury is predominantly certainly one of repair. Phases of wound healing are hemostasis, irritation, proliferation, epithelization, and maturation remodeling.
  2,089 355 1
CASE REPORTS
A usual tumor at an unusual site: Report of two cases of schwannoma at nonindigenous sites
Nigi Ross Philip, K Sajitha, Shubha Bhat, Chandrika Rao
July-December 2017, 1(2):50-53
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_14_17  
Schwannoma is a benign, slow-growing encapsulated tumor arising from schwann cells of the nerve sheath and believed to originate from the embryonic neural crest cells. They are common tumors of the head-and-neck region and extremities arising from the nerve sheaths of cranial and spinal nerves. We present two cases of schwannoma occurring at uncommon sites. The first case is a solitary intra-cranial schwannoma presenting in the frontal region which was radiologically diagnosed as meningioma. And, the second case presented as a polypoidal lesion in the right nasal cavity.
  2,164 253 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Review on cytochrome C
Anubhav Das
January-June 2019, 3(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_8_19  
Cytochrome c (Cyt c) is an essential mitochondrial protein which takes part in the electron transport system and apoptosis. Cyt c also scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidizes cardiolipin during apoptosis. The recent finding that cyt c is phosphorylated in vivo for the important role of cyt c in the regulation of making life and death decisions. An apoptotic sequence of events takes place which involves changes in cyt c phosphorylation, increased ROS through increased mitochondrial membrane potentials, the oxidation of cardiolipin by cyt c, and its release from the mitochondria. Cyt c regulation in respiration and cellular death is discussed about human disease which includes neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and sepsis.
  2,123 230 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of blind artist game in pathology: A comparative study
D Angel Fastina Mary
January-June 2019, 3(1):22-25
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_6_19  
Introduction: Pathology is that the science of the causes and effects of diseases, particularly the branch of drugs that deals with the laboratory examination of samples of the body tissue for diagnostic or rhetorical functions. Research suggests that students have knowledge regarding pathology in their identification of drawings and alternative artifacts. Materials and Methods: This study consists of 100 controls – 50 population exposed to blind artist game and 50 population without exposed to blind artist game in pathology. The data will be collected, and the resultswill be analyzed statistically. Results: This study shows that there is a high significant difference between groups with blind artist game and without blind artist game with P < 0.05. Conclusion: Our study showed that the Blind Artist Game is an effective game in learning pathology.
  1,978 186 -
Use of VideoScribe application in teaching: A comparative study
M Ashwin Shravan Kumar
January-June 2019, 3(1):19-21
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_5_19  
Aim: The aim of the study is to know the effect of VideoScribe application in teaching and learning of pathology. Objective: The main objective is to compare the conventional textbook learning with VideoScribe flipped classes. Materials and Methods: A video is made using the VideoScribe application. Thirty students were asked to prepare on the same topic and were asked to take up the test. The video was then played, and the students were asked to take up test again. The answers were evaluated and compared. Results and Discussion: The results clearly show that there is increased percentage of marks when the flipped class is made available. This shows that flipped class are helpful in the improvement of knowledge in comparison with conventional textbook methods. This study is designed in a way to evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual aids in learning process. Conclusion: Audiovisual aids are important in the education system. These encourage the teaching-learning process and make it easier to understand the concepts. Hence, there is no doubt that these applications and software have greater impact.
  1,897 261 -
Analysis of molecular markers in glioblastoma and correlation with survival pattern
Ishita Pant, Sujata Chaturvedi, Vaishali Suri, Ajay Kumar Bansal, Deepak Kumar Jha, Vinod Kumar Singh Gautam
January-June 2018, 2(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_11_18  
Objective: The objective of this study was to apply the newly recommended mandatory immunohistochemical (IHC) markers, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and ATRX, in addition to our previously applied panel of p53, epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], MDM2, and Ki67 on histopathologically diagnosed thirty cases of glioblastoma. Their interrelationship and correlation with survival pattern were analyzed. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the histopathology records and clinical case files was done in thirty cases of glioblastoma (World Health Organization Grade IV). These cases were analyzed for certain defined clinical and histopathological parameters. IHC staining for IDH1-R132H and ATRX was done. IHC scores for p53, EGFR, VEGF, MDM2, and Ki67 were included from the previously published dataset. IHC labeling of all these markers was analyzed, and their interrelationship was studied and correlated with the survival pattern. Results: Cases were categorized as glioblastoma, IDH-wild type; glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; and glioblastoma, not otherwise specified (NOS). A total of 17 cases were categorized as glioblastoma, IDH-wild type and 10 cases were categorized as glioblastoma, IDH-mutant. Three cases in younger adults were categorized as glioblastoma, NOS. In glioblastoma, IDH-wild type, p53 expression was found in 7 cases, increased Ki67 expression was present in 12 cases, VEGF expression was found in 16 cases, MDM2 was expressed in 14 cases, while EGFR expression was present in 10 cases. In glioblastoma, IDH-mutant, p53 expression was found in 5 cases, increased Ki67 expression was present in 4 cases, VEGF expression was found in 9 cases, MDM2 was expressed in 5 cases, while EGFR expression was present in 3 cases. The mean overall survival in glioblastoma, IDH-wild type was 3.1 months and, in glioblastoma, IDH-mutant, the mean overall survival was 6.4 months. Conclusion: Survival pattern of glioblastoma, IDH-mutant, was better than glioblastoma, IDH-wild type.
  1,928 180 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
A review on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
MG Visha
January-June 2019, 3(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_2_19  
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) commonly occurs in the older age. It is a progressive lung disease which is due to a group of disorders such as refractory asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. Most people with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and they experience difficulty in breathing. The disease is mainly characterized by increased breathlessness. Acute exacerbations of COPD are mainly caused by bacteria such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The severity of the exacerbation is based on three cardinal symptoms. The three cardinal symptoms are increased sputum volume, increased sputum purulence, and increased dyspnea compared with baseline. Patients experiencing two symptoms are considered to have moderate and all three symptoms are considered to have severe disease status. Antibacterial therapy is the definite treatment for the COPD.
  1,898 204 -
CASE REPORTS
Multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors: Insight to a rare syndrome?
Aravinda Konidena, Samridhi Shekhar, Avani Dixit, Deepa Jatti Patil
January-June 2017, 1(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_4_17  
Nevoid basal cell carcinoma (BCC) syndrome is a rare syndrome caused by mutations in PTCH1 gene and characterized by several developmental anomalies and neoplasms affecting multiple organ systems. Conventionally, the syndrome was described as a triad of multiple BCCs, keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), and bifid ribs. However, recently, we encountered a 25-year-old male patient who presented incidentally with multiple KCOTs, bifid ribs, and other characteristic findings, but not BCCs. This case along with appropriate literature review is being presented herewith.
  1,788 194 -
Primary mucosal melanoma of maxillary gingiva with metastasis: A rare case report with brief review of literature
Jimsha Vannathan Kumaran, Mariappan Jonathan Daniel, Mithunjith Krishnan, Divakar Seetharaman
July-December 2017, 1(2):61-65
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_11_17  
Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm. Over 90% of melanoma occurs in skin, but they may also arise from the mucosal surfaces or other sites where neural crest migrates. Intraorally, the most common sites are the palate and gingiva followed by mandibular gingiva and lip mucosa. Oral melanoma is initially asymptomatic. It may develop as a slowly growing mass and be present for months or years before being noticed. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck has poor prognosis, with the survival of a patient with mucosal melanoma being less when compared with cutaneous melanoma, so early diagnosis is important.
  1,795 184 -
Endometrial osteocartilaginous metaplasia: A case report and review of the literature
Yeo Yen Ching, Mihir Gudi, Josefa E.O Vella
July-December 2018, 2(2):34-36
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_13_18  
Rare cases of osseous metaplasia and a single case of cartilaginous metaplasia have been reported previously but no previously reported cases of osteo-cartilagenous metaplasia were found on searching the literature. Osteo-cartilagenous metaplasia is a benign lesion which may be treated successfully with hysteroscopy. Awareness of this condition by histopathologists is important in order to avoid misdiagnosis of endometrial malignant mixed mullerian tumour. The authors report a patient with endometrial osteo-cartilagenous metaplasia, describe the clinical and histological features and review the literature on this condition.
  1,641 163 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of bingo puzzle game in understanding pathology
R Haripriya
January-June 2019, 3(1):26-31
DOI:10.4103/ijcpc.ijcpc_7_19  
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of bingo puzzle game in understanding pathology. Introduction: Students are introduced to newer terms and concepts in pathology, and it has been observed that students often find it difficult to remember and recall various concepts and mechanisms. Hence, reinforcement of key concepts is indispensable to increase understanding. Bingo puzzle game stimulates the mind, increase the vocabulary, and help to develop a healthy skepticism. Materials and Methods: The study sample size was 150 students. (1) Group 1: 75 students not exposed to a bingo puzzle game. (2) Group 2: 75 students exposed to a bingo puzzle game. Both the groups were asked to take up a written test, and the results were statistically analyzed with unpaired t-test, compared, and represented graphically. Results: The unpaired t-test shows the value of P < 0.05, and this study shows that there is a significant increase in the marks obtained by the students who learned by playing bingo puzzle game. Thus, this type of active learning methods helps students to understand pathology in an effective way. Conclusion: In conclusion, the game based activity is very helpful in understanding the pathology concepts. Especially, to list out the various causes and examples for a single pathology, Bingo Puzzle game is useful and an innovative methodology in teaching Pathology.
  1,561 134 -